L’ophtalmologie au XXe siècle

Un siècle d’Ă©volution technique et mĂ©dicale
mardi 23 novembre 1999

Des mêmes auteurs

 
L’ophtalmologiste de 1900 aurait sans doute reconnu son collègue des annĂ©es trente. Mais, Ă  coup sĂ»r, ce dernier se sentirait Ă©tranger et perdu dans le cabinet d’un praticien d’aujourd’hui.

la chirurgie de la rétine reste délicateEn soixante-dix ans, les dĂ©couvertes en ophtalmologie ont modifiĂ© en profondeur une spĂ©cialitĂ© aux techniques d’examen et de traitement très spĂ©cifiques.

Pourtant, la particularitĂ© de l’ophtalmologie ne doit pas faire perdre de vue son statut de discipline mĂ©dico-chirurgicale. L’adaptation de techniques expĂ©rimentĂ©es dans d’autres domaines, l’utilisation qu’elle fait des dĂ©couvertes scientifiques les plus rĂ©centes pour faire progresser ses propres pratiques, tĂ©moignent assez de son souci d’ĂŞtre au service de la mĂ©decine.

L’ophtalmologie a certes un rĂ´le très particulier dans notre sociĂ©tĂ© : non seulement 80 % des informations qu’un individu reçoit passent par la vue, mais ce sens est intimement liĂ© Ă  l’organisation mĂŞme de notre mode de vie : les transports (automobile, avion), comme les distractions (tĂ©lĂ©vision, cinĂ©ma), en sont tributaires, sans compter le rĂ´le que joue le regard dans la sphère relationnelle.

L’Ă©volution de l’ophtalmologie est double : sur le plan social, ses progrès vont dans le sens d’un confort et d’une recherche esthĂ©tique toujours plus grands. Mais elle a aussi, sur le terrain purement mĂ©dical, grandement contribuĂ© Ă  amĂ©liorer la qualitĂ© de l’espĂ©rance de vie depuis le dĂ©but du siècle.

Passons en revue, Ă  travers quelques domaines traditionnellement ou plus rĂ©cemment associĂ©s Ă  l’ophtalmologie (les techniques d’examen, la correction de la vue, les collyres, la microchirurgie et la neuro-ophtalmologie), les dix progrès qui ont changĂ© "la vue" et la vie des hommes depuis le dĂ©but de ce siècle.

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